Forward-looking information, or forward-looking statements, have been included in this Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) to provide Enbridge Inc. (Enbridge or the Company) shareholders and potential investors with information about the Company and its subsidiaries, including management's assessment of Enbridge's and its subsidiaries' future plans and operations. This information may not be appropriate for other purposes. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by words such as "anticipate", "expect", "project", "estimate", "forecast", "plan", "intend", "target", "believe" and similar words suggesting future outcomes or statements regarding an outlook. Although Enbridge believes that these forward-looking statements are reasonable based on the information available on the date such statements are made and processes used to prepare the information, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and readers are cautioned against placing undue reliance on forward-looking statements. By their nature, these statements involve a variety of assumptions, known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other factors, which may cause actual results, levels of activity and achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. Material assumptions include assumptions about: the expected supply and demand for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids; prices of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids; expected exchange rates; inflation; interest rates; the availability and price of labour and pipeline construction materials; operational reliability; anticipated in-service dates and weather.
Enbridge's forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties pertaining to operating performance, regulatory parameters, weather, economic conditions, exchange rates, interest rates and commodity prices, including but not limited to those risks and uncertainties discussed in this MD&A and in the Company's other filings with Canadian and United States securities regulators. The impact of any one risk, uncertainty or factor on a particular forward-looking statement is not determinable with certainty as these are interdependent and Enbridge's future course of action depends on management's assessment of all information available at the relevant time. Except to the extent required by law, Enbridge assumes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements made in this MD&A or otherwise, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. All subsequent forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, attributable to Enbridge or persons acting on the Company's behalf, are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements.
This MD&A contains references to adjusted earnings, which represent earnings applicable to common shareholders adjusted for non-recurring or non-operating factors on both a consolidated and segmented basis. These factors are reconciled and discussed in the Financial Results sections for the affected business segments. Management believes that the presentation of adjusted earnings provides useful information to investors and shareholders as it provides increased transparency and predictive value. Management uses adjusted earnings to set targets, assess performance of the Company and set the Company's dividend payout target. Adjusted earnings and adjusted earnings for each of the segments are not measures that have a standardized meaning prescribed by Canadian generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and are not considered GAAP measures; therefore, these measures may not be comparable with similar measures presented by other issuers. See Non-GAAP Reconciliation section for a reconciliation of the GAAP and non-GAAP measures.